# 2009 GUI Interaction B - Optical Dosimetry

**GOAL: Examine the impact of source configuration and optical properties on the magnitude and spatial distribution of fluence within tissue**

Select "Fluence/Interrogation Solver Panel". Note that this panel lists various types of source configuration and solver options.

**I. Embedded Isotropic Point Source**

##### Goal: This portion of the GUI Interaction is to examine the fluence distribution generated by an embedded isotropic point source located at a depth of *l*^{ * }in the medium

- In
**Forward Model:**select Standard Diffusion (Analytic - Point Source). - In
**Solution Domain:**Φ(ρ,*z*). - Select "Map View" tab in the plotting region.
- Use default values for Rho and Z Range.
- In
**Optical Properties:**enter μ_{a}= 0.01 mm^{-1}, μ'_{s}= 1 mm^{-1}. Note that μ'_{s}/ μ_{a}= 100. - Press "Generate Fluence/Interrogation Map" button at the bottom of the panel.
- Examine the shape and magnitude of the fluence distribution along the centerline with depth.
- Replot the fluence distribution for μ
_{a}= 0.1 and 1 mm^{-1}and examine the effect of the increased absorption on the magnitude, axial and lateral penetration depths. - Now keep absorption constant at μ
_{a}= 0.01 mm^{-1}and examine the effect of varying the reduced scattering coefficient μ'_{s}= 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm^{-1}on the magnitude, axial and lateral penetration depths.

**II. Distributed Line Source ("Pencil Beam")**

##### Goal: This portion of the GUI Interaction is to examine how the fluence distribution is altered when replacing the embedded isotropic point source with a distributed line source that falls exponentially with depth with a constant decay rate of 1/*l*^{ * }.

- In
**Forward Model:**select Standard Diffusion (Analytic - Distributed Line Source). - In
**Solution Domain:**Φ(ρ,*z*). - Select "Map View" tab in the plotting region.
- Use default values for Rho and Z Range.
- In
**Optical Properties:**enter μ_{a}= 0.01 mm^{-1}, μ'_{s}= 1 mm^{-1}. Note that μ'_{s}/ μ_{a}= 100. - Press "Generate Fluence/Interrogation Map" button at the bottom of the panel.
- Examine the shape and magnitude of the fluence distribution along the centerline with depth and also compare with results in Section I.
- Replot the fluence distribution for μ
_{a}= 0.1 and 1 mm^{-1}and examine the effect of the increased absorption on the magnitude, axial and lateral penetration depths. - Now keep absorption constant at μ
_{a}= 0.01 mm^{-1}and examine the effect of varying the reduced scattering coefficient μ'_{s}= 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm^{-1}on the magnitude, axial and lateral penetration depths.

**III. Distributed Gaussian Beam Source**

##### Goal: This portion of the GUI Interaction is to examine the impact of beam diameter on the amplitude and axial/lateral dispersion of the light in turbid tissues.

- In
**Forward Model:**select Standard Diffusion (Analytic - Distributed Gaussian Source). - In
**Solution Domain:**Φ(ρ,*z*). - Select "Map View" tab in the plotting region.
- Use default values for Rho and Z Range.
- In
**Optical Properties:**enter μ_{a}= 0.01 mm^{-1}, μ'_{s}= 1 mm^{-1}. Note that μ'_{s}/ μ_{a}= 100. - Select a Gaussian Beam Radius of 0.2mm.
- Press "Generate Fluence Map" button at the bottom of the panel.
- Keeping the μ'
_{s}value fixed, plot the fluence distribution for μ_{a}= 0.1 and 1 mm^{-1}and examine the effect of the increased absorption on the magnitude, axial and lateral penetration depths of the fluence distribution. - Now fix the absorption coefficient at μ
_{a}= 0.01 mm^{-1}and examine the effect of varying the reduced scattering coefficient μ'_{s}= 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm^{-1}on the magnitude, axial and lateral penetration depths. - Press "Generate Fluence/Interrogation Map" button under the graphing area.
- Repeat the above for Gaussian beam radii of 0.5mm and 2mm.

**Additional Questions:** Consider the situation where you using a laser based therapy to treat an embedded tumor. For this application, it is critical that you maximize the axial penetration of the light field. However during the treatment, the tissue absorption may increase due to increased blood flow and scattering may decrease due to morphological changes in the tissue. In this context comment on the following:

- How does an increase in absorption impact (a) the axial penetration of the light field and (b) the lateral dispersion of the light field?
- How does a decrease in scattering impact (a) the axial penetration of the light field and (b) the lateral dispersion of the light field?
- Would increasing the beam diameter improve (a) the axial penetration of the light field or (b) the lateral dispersion of the light field? Is this impact the same regardless of the optical properties?