2009 GUI Interaction C  Spatially and TemporallyResolved Diffuse Reflectance
GOAL: To examine the effect of Optical Properties, Solver and Source Configuration on Diffuse Reflectance.
I. Impact of Optical Properties on SpatiallyResolved Reflectance
 On the "Forward/Analysis" Panel select: (a) Forward Model: Standard Diffusion (Analytic  Point Source) and (b) Solution Domain: Steady State (select R(ρ)).
 Select start and stop locations to 0.5 and 9.5 mm, respectively with 19 points (every 0.5 mm).
 In Optical Properties: enter μ_{a} = 0.01mm^{1}, μ'_{s}=1mm^{1}.
 Press "Plot Reflectance" button.
 Press "Hold On".
 Fix μ_{s}'=1mm^{1}. Repeat the above steps for μ_{a} = 0.1 and 1.0 mm^{1}.
 Please note the trend of decreasing reflectance with increasing absorption.
 Now toggle the plots with a logarithmic yaxis spacing. Note the linear behavior at larger detector location.

Question: Can you relate this to the underlying analytic approximation?

 Press "Clear All" and toggle back to "Linear" yaxis spacing.
 Select start and stop locations to 0.5 and 9.5 mm, respectively with 19 points (every 0.5 mm).
 In Optical Properties: enter μ_{a} = 0.01mm^{1}, μ'_{s} = 1 mm^{1}.
 Press "Plot Reflectance" button.
 Press "Hold On".
 Fix μ'_{s}=1mm^{1}. Repeat the above steps for μ'_{s} = 0.5 and 1.5 mm^{1}.
 Now toggle the plots with a logarithmic yaxis spacing.

Questions: Note the trend of increasing reflectance with increasing scattering close to the source but the opposite far from the source. Is this expected? Why or why not?

II. Compare SDA and MC predictions for SpatiallyResolved Reflectance
 On the "Forward/Analysis" Panel select: (a) Forward Model: Standard Diffusion (Analytic  Point Source) and (b) Solution Domain: Steady State (select R(ρ)).
 Select start and stop locations to 0.5 and 9.5 mm, respectively with 19 points (every 0.5 mm).
 In Optical Properties: enter μ_{a} = 0.01mm^{1}, μ'_{s} = 1 mm^{1}.
 Plot Reflectance.
 Press "Hold On".
 Now select: Forward Model: Scaled Monte Carlo (g=0.8).
 Plot Reflectance.
 Repeat the steps for μ_{a} = 0.1 and 1 mm^{1}.
Questions:
 How do the SDA and MC models compare close to ρ = 0?
 Now switch to a logarithmic yaxis spacing. How do the models compare far from the source?
Press "Clear All" and return to linear axis spacing.
III. Impact of Optical Properties on TemporallyResolved Reflectance
 On the "Forward/Analysis" Panel select: (a) Forward Model: Scaled Monte Carlo (g=0.8) and (b) Solution Domain: TimeDomain, Collimated Beam Source (select R(ρ,t)).
 For the Independent axis choose t and set ρ = 10 mm.
 Choose "Start" = 0 ns and "Stop" = 0.5 ns with 101 time points (1 point every 5 ps).
 In Optical Properties: enter μ_{a} = 0.01mm^{1}, μ'_{s} = 1mm^{1}.
 Plot timeresolved reflectance, R(t).
 Repeat the above for μ_{a} = 0.1 and 1 mm^{1}.

Question: Note also the difference in the amplitude and shape of these plots. What do you believe is responsible for this? Hint: It may help to use both linear and log yaxis spacing.

 Press "Clear All" and return and In Optical Properties: enter μ_{a} = 0.01mm^{1}, μ'_{s} = 1mm^{1}.
 Plot timeresolved reflectance, R(t).
 Repeat the above for μ'_{s} = 0.5 and 1.5 mm^{1}.
Questions:
 Note that no photons are detected before a finite time in the timeresolved reflectance signal. Can you independently calculate the minimal delay time? Note: It may help to visualize this delay using logarithmic xaxis spacing.
 Note that the peak reflectance values are different and not located at the same time point. Can you speculate as to the origin of these features? Hint: It may help to use both linear and log yaxis spacing.
 You are designing a timeresolved optical imaging system to detect early formation of a fibrous tumor. What is an approximate time resolution and source detector separation necessary to differentiate normal breast with μ'_{s}=0.6 mm^{1} from a fibroid tumor with μ'_{s}=1.2 mm^{1} with such a system?